Natural Language Changes Indicated by CSS-Generated Pseudo-Elemental Content


What Is Being Tested?

This document is part of a suite of pages designed to test the implementation of the W3C's User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG). In particular, this page is designed to test implementation of UAAG checkpoint 2.10:

2.10 Allow configuration not to render content in unsupported natural languages. Indicate to the user in context that author-supplied content has not been rendered. [Priority 3] Content only.
Note: For example, use a text substitute or accessible graphical icon to indicate that content in a particular language has not been rendered. This checkpoint does not require the user agent to allow different configurations for different natural languages.
Techniques for checkpoint 2.10

What Should Happen?

This page uses the :before and :after pseudo-elements defined in CSS2 to indicate changes in the natural language used in the body of this document. Changes in natural language are indicated in the markup using the "lang" attribute--for example:

<span lang="fr">c'est très facile, non?</span>

A :before and :after pseudo-element is also defined for the two-letter lower-case symbol for French, "fr", thus:

span[lang|=fr]:before { content: "start French: "; }
span[lang|=fr]:after { content: " end French"; }

If your user agent supports the :before and :after pseudo-elements, and support for stylesheets was turned on, with the addition of styling--added so as to distinguish the pseudo-elemental content from the page content--the change in natural language would be indicated thus:

start French: c'est très facile, non? end French

The following two paragraphs contain a sentence in English and a sentence in another western European language. The non-English text has been marked using the "lang" attribute. If you are using an aural browser that supports natural language switching prompted by the contents of the "lang" attribute, and your aural browser or screen-reader supports the languages used in the examples below, you will hear the first sentence of each paragraph spoken in the programmatically indicated language, then the translation of that sentence in English. If you are interacting with this page visually, the use of the "lang" attribute should allow your user agent to render the natural language using the proper character set for that language. Several more examples, utilizing several other languages for which there is known aural support, will be added as soon as they become available.

Il est le moins laid de sa famille.
translation: He is the least ugly (member) of his family.

Auf dieser Seite befinden sich einige Tests zum Testen eines Web-Browsers bezüglich der Interpretation von wichtigen oder neuen HTML 4.0-Konstrukten.
translation: This page contains several tests which show if your browser understands the most important HTML 4 features.

How to Provide Feedback

Please send comments and observations about this test page to <>. Your comments will be archived in the User Agent mailing list's public hypertext archive. Please make your observations as specific and detailed as possible. Be sure to include the following information when you report your observations to the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines Working Group:

  1. operating system (including version/revision number)
  2. assistive technology, if any (please include version number)
  3. user agent name and version (e.g. MSIE, version 5.00.2920.0000 update versions ;q254902)
  4. any special settings (i.e. any changes you or your adaptive equipment made to your user agent's default configuration)
  5. did your browser generate color-coded start and end tags for the non-English text?
  6. did your browser prompt you to download a font you do/did not currently have on your system?
Terminal Index
1) Return to the User Agent Test Suite's Index
2) User Agent Accessibility Guidelines Working Group (UAWG)
3) send comments and observations to

W3C Validated XHTML 1.0!     W3C Validated CSS!

last updated by Gregory J. Rosmaita 4:20 AM 6/5/2001

Copyright ©  2001 W3C (MIT, INRIA, Keio), All Rights Reserved. W3C liability, trademark, document use and software licensing rules apply. Your interactions with this site are in accordance with our public and Member privacy statements.